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By Godehard Link

The philosophical strategy of this quantity is especially structuralist, utilizing logical instruments to enquire the formal constitution of varied types of gadgets in our international, as characterized by means of language and as systematised by way of philosophy. This quantity generally analyses the structural homes of collections or pluralities (with functions to the philosophy of set theory), homogeneous items like water, and the semantics and philosophy of occasions. This publication thereby enhances algebraic paintings that has been performed on different philosophical entities, i.e. propositions, houses, kin, or occasions. positioned within the triangle of language, common sense and philosophy, this quantity is exclusive in combining the assets of alternative fields in an interdisciplinary company. 1/2 the fourteen chapters of this quantity are unique papers, complementing the gathering of the author's formerly released essays at the topic.

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Use of articulators The metaphor drool ('talk foolishly' (LDOCE)), in which the mouth is necessarily involved, describes a natural reflex which human beings should have learnt to control. The metaphor brings in three elements: the speaker's behaviour is described as uncontrolled, the substance brought out is characterized as valueless, and the action as a whole as distasteful and socially unacceptable. In the metaphor spit out 'say or express with effort, force or anger' {LDOCE), the value of the substance (whether it be food or phlegm) and the unacceptability of the action are likewise meaning elements.

The downward movement is then explicable in terms of the superordinate position of S vis-à-vis H (equally in hand down). A difference between laying down something and giving it to a person resides in the terminal stage of the process. In a prototypical act of giving, the recipient accepts the object. That is, the object ends up in the recipient's hands. When I lay it down (in front of him), however, it may take some time before he takes it up - or he may refuse to accept it at all. Indeed, official claims, charges etc.

The container is regarded as a hiding place: things inside are invisible and secret and become visible, perceptible in the exteriorization. This metaphor is one which relies on the combination of image-schemata, rather than on any distinct donor domain; there is no act of unbosoming outside the LA domain. Another aspect which plays a role here is the folk-theory which conceives of the bosom as the seat of emotions. However, the role of folk-theory with respect to metaphorisation is beyond the scope of this paper.

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