By Margaret E. Keck
In Activists past Borders, Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink study one of those strain crew that has been principally neglected by means of political analysts: networks of activists that coalesce and function throughout nationwide frontiers. Their objectives could be foreign enterprises or the rules of specific states. ancient examples of such transborder alliances comprise anti-slavery and lady suffrage campaigns. some time past 20 years, transnational activism has had an important influence in human rights, specifically in Latin the USA, and advocacy networks have strongly inspired environmental politics besides. The authors additionally study the emergence of a global crusade round violence opposed to women.
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Extra info for Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics
187–88, 211–13. 40 Female genital mutilation is most widely practiced in Africa, where it is reported to occur in at least twentysix countries. Between 85 and 114 million women in the world today are estimated to have experienced genital mutilation. World Bank Development Report 1993: Investing in Health (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 50. 41 See Leonard J. Kouba and Judith Muasher, “Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview,” African Studies Review 28:1 (March 1985): 95–110; Alison T.
48) A government that claims to be protecting indigenous areas or ecological reserves is potentially more vulnerable to charges that such areas are endangered than one that makes no such claim. At that point the effort is not to make governments change their position but to hold them to their word. Meaningful policy change is thus more likely when the first three types or stages of impact have occurred. Both issue characteristics and actor characteristics are important parts of our explanation of how networks affect political outcomes and the conditions under which networks can be effective.
68 ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* P RINCIPLES, NORMS, AND P RACTICES In his classic work The Anarchical Society, Hedley Bull made no bones about the fact that in talking about international society he was talking about a society of states. ”70 Bull would have recognized the advocacy networks we discuss in this book as contributors to such uncertainty. 71 Understanding the importance of the actors and/or the rules of interaction among them requires attention to the place of values or norms in theorizing about relations.