By ACI Committee 301
It is a Reference Specification that the Architect/Engineer can observe to any building venture concerning structural concrete through mentioning it within the venture requisites. Checklists are supplied to help the Architect/Engineer in supplementing the provisions of this Reference Specification as wanted by way of designating or specifying person venture standards. the 1st 5 sections of this record disguise basic development requisites for cast-in-place structural concrete and slabs-on-ground. those sections disguise fabrics and proportioning of concrete; reinforcement and prestressing metal; creation, putting, completing, and curing of concrete; formwork functionality standards and development; therapy of joints; embedded goods; fix of floor defects; and completing of shaped and unformed surfaces. Provisions governing trying out, review, and popularity of concrete in addition to recognition of the constructions are incorporated. the rest sections are dedicated to architectural concrete, light-weight concrete, mass concrete, post-tensioned concrete, shrinkagecompensating concrete, business flooring slabs, tilt-up building, precast structural concrete, and precast architectural concrete.
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Extra info for ACI 301M-10: Metric Specifications for Structural Concrete
However, it is not sufficient to use structural responses alone as performance indices to evaluate the performance of optimized designs. The performance objective of topology optimization is to minimize the weight of a structure while its structural responses are maintained within acceptable limits. Therefore, the minimum material that can support applied loads without violating behavioral constraints should be used as a measure of the performance of optimal designs. A methodology for deriving performance indices for assisting the selection of the material and sectional shapes of structural components has been proposed by Ashby (1992).
Cook, R. , Malkus, D. S. and Plesha, M. E. , New York: John Wiley & Sons. Haftka, R. T. and Gürdal, Z. , Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher. Hassani, B. and Hinton, E. (1999) Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization, Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hughes, T. J. R. (1987) The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kirsch, U. (1993) Structural Optimization: Fundamentals and Applications, Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Liang, Q.
17. 18. The optimal topology obtained was uniformly stressed, as indicated by the performance index history. 18(d) shows the final design proposal given by Mattheck (1998) using the SKO approach. This proposal was regenerated by using the same mesh as used in the PBO. A linear FEA on the design proposal was undertaken to evaluate the performance responses. 92, which is much less than that obtained by the PBO method. 18(b), which is far from the optimum. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed performance index is a useful tool for ranking the performance of structural topologies.