By Bernard Schutz

Readability, clarity and rigor mix within the moment variation of this widely-used textbook to supply step one into common relativity for undergraduate scholars with a minimum heritage in arithmetic. issues inside relativity that fascinate astrophysical researchers and scholars alike are covered.

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**Sample text**

13) This is the Einstein law of composition of velocities. The important point is that |W | never exceeds 1 if |W| and |v| are both smaller than one. To see this, set W = 1. Then Eq. 13) implies (1 − v)(1 − W) = 0, that is that either v or W must also equal 1. Therefore, two ‘subluminal’ velocities produce another subluminal one. Moreover, if W = 1, then W = 1 independently of v: this is the universality of the speed of light. What is more, if |W| 1 and |v| 1, then, to first order, Eq. 13) gives W = W + v.

2) contains only Mαβ + Mβα when α = β, not Mαβ and Mβα independently. Argue that this enables us to set Mαβ = Mβα without loss of generality. 7 In the discussion leading up to Eq. 2), assume that the coordinates of O¯ are given as the following linear combinations of those of O: ¯t = αt + βx, x¯ = μt + vx, y¯ = ay, z¯ = bz, where α, β, μ, ν, a, and b may be functions of the velocity v of O¯ relative to O, but they do not depend on the coordinates. Find the numbers {Mαβ , α, b = 0, . . , 3} of Eq.

8) Notice that ¯t is the time actually measured by a single clock, which moves on a world line from the origin to B, while t is the difference in the readings of two clocks at rest in O; one on a world line through the origin and one on a world line through B. We shall return to this observation later. For now, we define the proper time between events B and the origin to be the time ticked off by a clock which actually passes through both events. It is a directly measurable quantity, and it is closely related to the interval.