By Bacon M., Simm R., Redshaw T.
This ebook introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading three-D seismic facts. the themes it covers comprise simple structural interpretation and map-making; using 3D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of specialist geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the e-book might be integral for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum
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Additional resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
Step 5 is an editing step; any traces that appear excessively noisy owing to poor coupling or equipment failure are removed. Step 6 is the important process of assigning the correct positioning information to the traces as referred to in the acquisition section, so that actual offsets and locations can be determined. Just as step 3 was associated with resampling the data in time, then step 7 is an identical process in space. 5 m. 25 m, which in all but the steepest dip areas gives an over-sampling in the inline direction.
Usually the area covered per day is not as great as achieved by vibrator trucks. Holes need to be drilled into the earth to ensure the explosive charges are well coupled to bedrock and not fired in the shallower weathered layers, which would cause excessive amounts of noise in the data. This reduces the acquisition rates to somewhere between 50 and 100 shotpoints per day. The lack of vehicles may mean the majority of movement of equipment has to be by helicopter, an important issue for safety. Another issue is the amount of time that may have to be spent cutting lines in forested areas.
More popular are cables that are laid on or dragged across the seabed during acquisition. A recent innovation is cables that are permanently buried over a producing field and are hooked up to a recording vessel whenever a survey is required. Although the initial survey using this last technique is very expensive, any repeat survey is relatively cheap since the boat is not required to lift and drag the cables. In operations using cables, two vessels are needed though each can be substantially smaller and less powerful than a standard marine 3-D boat.